In South Africa, the Common Law offence of fraud is defined as “the unlawful and intentional making of a misrepresentation which causes actual and or potential prejudice to another”. The term “fraud” is also used in a wider sense by the general public. In this regard, the term is used in this document in its widest possible meaning and is intended to include all aspects of economic crime and acts of dishonesty. In other words, fraud can be described as any conduct or behaviour of which a dishonest representation and/or appropriation forms an element. The general offence of corruption is contained in Section 3 of The Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act. This section provides that any person who gives or accepts or agrees or offers to accept / receive any gratification from another person in order to influence such other person in a manner that amounts to:

The achievement of an unjustified result; or Any other unauthorised or improper inducement to do or not to do anything is guilty of the offence of Corruption. 

Corruption in its wider meaning, and as referred to in this document, includes any conduct or behaviour where a person accepts, agrees or offers any gratification for him/her or for another person where the purpose is to act dishonestly or illegally.  Such behaviour also includes the misuse of material or information, abuse of a position of authority or a breach of trust or violation of duties.